Cancer is usually detected when occur some signs or symptoms. Medical practitioners perform different tests and examinations to determine the location of malignant tumor. Diagnosis which either confirms or eliminates the malignant tissues is made with biopsy, examination of removed tissues.
Any type of cancer requires medical treatment which greatly varies from the type of cancer as well as from its location, size and stage. Treatment of cancer greatly developed and increased rate of survival, effectiveness and quality of life of people with cancer but the traditional methods of cancer treatment are still surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Surgical removal of malignant tumors is still the primary treatment of majority of cancers especially if tumor is still localized and has not metastasized. However, when cancer cells have metastasize complete surgical removal often is not possible. If cancer is metastasized are usually used chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Both treatments (chemotherapy as system-wide therapy and radiation therapy as localized therapy) either destroy the cancer cells or prevent their growth.
Besides the traditional therapies - surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy were in later period also introduced other methods of cancer treatment and cancer prevention:
1. hormonal therapy which can be used for treatment of malignant tumors influenced by hormones such as breast and prostate cancers
2. immunotherapy uses substances which should help one's immune system to produce antibodies which destroy cancer cells
3. vaccination is effective in prevention of cancers which are caused by certain sexually transmitted viruses such as Human Papilloma Virus
4. gene therapy is still in development but it shows potentials to prevent certain hereditary cancers in the near future
There are also series of other methods to treat cancer as well as to relieve its symptoms. In cancer treatment are often used two or more therapies with purpose of destroying cancer. However, the final outcome of cancer treatment greatly depends from cancer type as well as from time of its detection. If the cancer is detected and treated early the patient has generally much better options to defeat the cancer. For that reason is important to pay attention to any body changes and to avoid all potential carcinogenic substances and factors as much as possible.